In her dissertation on America's China policy under Truman and Nixon, entitled "Clearer Than Truth," Crowley, whose . is in international relations, lifted multiple passages from Eric Larson's 1996 book, "Casualties and Consensus: The Historical Role of Casualties in Domestic Support for . Military Operations." She also repeatedly plagiarized James Chace's 1998 book, "Acheson: The Secretary of State Who Created the American World," as well as a 1982 book by Yale's John Lewis Gaddis called "Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of American National Security Policy during the Cold War." Crowley's dissertation also contains passages taken from a 1996 book by Thomas Christensen of Princeton, Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958.
During the Aufklärung , or Enlightenment, history began to be seen as both linear and irreversible. Condorcet 's interpretations of the various "stages of humanity" or Auguste Comte 's positivism were one of the most important formulations of such conceptions of history, which trusted social progress . As in Jean-Jacques Rousseau 's Emile (1762) treatise on education (or the "art of training men"), the Aufklärung conceived the human species as perfectible: human nature could be infinitely developed through a well-thought pedagogy . In What is Enlightenment? (1784), Immanuel Kant defined the Aufklärung as the capacity to think by oneself, without referring to an exterior authority, be it a prince or tradition: