Violence throughout the South, especially the Memphis Riots of 1866 followed by the New Orleans Riot in July of that year, resulted in Congress passing the Reconstruction Act and the Fourteenth Amendment , to extend the protections of full citizenship to freedmen and free people of color. Louisiana and Texas were put under the authority of the " Fifth Military District " of the United States during Reconstruction. Louisiana was eventually readmitted to the Union in 1868; its Constitution of 1868 granted universal manhood suffrage and established universal public education. Both blacks and whites were elected to local and state offices. In 1872, lieutenant governor . Pinchback , who was of mixed race , succeeded Henry Clay Warmouth for a brief period as Republican governor of Louisiana , becoming the first governor of African descent of an American state . (The next African American to serve as governor of an American state was Douglas Wilder , elected in Virginia in 1989.) New Orleans even operated a racially-integrated public school system during this period.
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