Crellin and Philpott (1990) provide a comprehensive view of herbal history, from early American colonization until the late 1980s. The author found their observations in line with his own knowledge of the field. However, vast changes occurred in CAM in the decade following their examination, as biomedical and non-Western standards and ideas exerted an influence on Western herbal medicine. This situation is not even referred to by Crellin and Philpott (1990).
I entered the Department of Sociology's PhD program in 2004, after receiving a Master's degree abroad, from the University of Warwick (UK). I chose USC's program because I had already been introduced to books written by Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo when I was in graduate school, and was eager to attend a program where I could learn from a notable scholar in immigration studies. In addition, the USC Sociology department offered core graduate-level classes in several fields I had interest in: Sex and Gender, Race Theory, and a year-long Qualitative Methods course. I was also glad with the elective offerings in other departments, such as Latino Studies in the program for American Studies and Ethnicity.
I conducted ethnographic research for my thesis, an ethnography on masculinity among recovering gang members at a Pentecostal church, Victory Outreach. This research was published in Ethnic and Racial Studies, and then led to my dissertation work, a comparative analysis of faith-based gang recovery at Homeboy Industries and Victory Outreach. I received a dissertation fellowship from the Haynes Foundation, and was able to publish research from my dissertation in two edited volumes by leading presses.
The use of semiochemicals as management tools show considerable promise in reducing damage and mortality by bark beetles. Some of these compounds have already been successfully used to monitor population trends or as a mass trapping and/or disruption tactic (Borden 1993). The exploitation of semiochemicals as management tools requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms involved in the production and release of and response to these chemicals by the target species. In addition, it is important to have an understanding of the effects of semiochemicals applied on the target species and associated organisms. Lanier et al. (1972) was one of the first to suggest that the indiscriminate use of semiochemicals could theoretically lead to resistance. Such a phenomenon has been studied with regards to use of pheromones in mating disruption of the pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypilla (Saunders) (Haynes et al. 1984, Haynes and Baker 1988). Just as there is the potential for the development of semiochemical resistance in the target insect, there is also the potential for the development of response "resistance" in natural enemies as many of these insects use host pheromones as kairomones.