Another example is from Whorf's experience as a chemical engineer working for an insurance company as a fire inspector.  While inspecting a chemical plant he observed that the plant had two storage rooms for gasoline barrels, one for the full barrels and one for the empty ones. He further noticed that while no employees smoked cigarettes in the room for full barrels, no-one minded smoking in the room with empty barrels, although this was potentially much more dangerous because of the highly flammable vapors still in the barrels. He concluded that the use of the word empty in connection to the barrels had led the workers to unconsciously regard them as harmless, although consciously they were probably aware of the risk of explosion. This example was later criticized by Lenneberg  as not actually demonstrating causality between the use of the word empty and the action of smoking, but instead was an example of circular reasoning . Pinker in The Language Instinct ridiculed this example, claiming that this was a failing of human insight rather than language.
Thirdly, sometimes people assume that information about natural language could be inferred from the character encoding. However, a character encoding does not enable unambiguous identification of a natural language: there must be a one-to-one mapping between encoding and language for this inference to work, and there isn't one. For example, a single character encoding could be used for many languages, eg. Latin 1 (ISO-8859-1) could encode both French and English, as well as a great many other languages. In addition, the character encoding can vary over a single language, for example Arabic could use encodings such as 'Windows-1256' or 'ISO-8859-6' or 'UTF-8'.
Language you’re learning:
Spanish French Arabic Chinese (Mandarin) German Italian Russian Korean Japanese Portuguese —— Afrikaans Albanian Armenian Basque Bengali Bulgarian Catalan Cambodian Chinese (Cantonese) Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Fijian Finnish Georgian Greek Gujarati Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Irish (Gaeilge) Javanese Latvian Lithuanian Macedonian Malay Malayalam Maltese Maori Marathi Mongolian Nepali Norwegian Persian Polish Punjabi Quechuan Romanian Samoan Serbian Slovak Slovenian Somali Swahili Swedish Tagalog (Filipino) Tamil Tatar Telugu Thai Tibetan Tongan Turkish Ukrainian Urdu Uzbeki Vietnamese Welsh Xhosa Zulu Other