The Princeton Review is a leading tutoring, test prep and college admission services company. Every year, it helps millions of college- and graduate school-bound students achieve their education and career goals through online and in person courses delivered by a network of more than 4,000 teachers and tutors, online resources, and its more than 150 print and digital books published by Penguin Random House. The Princeton Review is headquartered in New York, NY. The company is not affiliated with Princeton University. For more information, visit . Follow the company on Twitter @ThePrincetonRev .
Since Fields 1897 , biographers of Longfellow have had to grapple with the challenge of his extreme reluctance to speak about his inner life, a reticence that is regularly mistaken for mediocrity or the absence of true feeling by the less favorably inclined, as in Gorman 1967 and Arvin 1963 . The first wave of biographies, such as Longfellow 1891 (originally 1886; cited under Editions ) and Kennedy 1882 , delve delightedly into popular anecdotes about the poet and highlighted his pedigree (grandson of a state senator on his father’s side and of a Revolutionary War general on his mother’s) or celebrated him as the first true representative of the “literary life” in America (see Higginson 1902 , cited under General Overviews ). Those works gave way to ecstatic demolition jobs from the earlier part of the 20th century, such as Gorman 1967 , and occasional attempts to rehabilitate him as either darker or more inspirational than hitherto assumed, as in Thompson 1938 and Wagenknecht 1966 . The more recent biographical work of Calhoun 2004 , Irmscher 2008 , and Irmscher 2009 (cited under Longfellow as Cultural Icon ) stresses Longfellow’s cultural importance, his clever management of his poetic reputation as well as of his finances (see Charvat 1968 ), and his commitment to his role as a mediator between different languages and national literatures.